Anarcho-environmentalism allegorised

The name Anaarkali in the present context has many meanings - Anaar symbolises the anarchism of the Bhils and kali which means flower bud in Hindi stands for their traditional environmentalism. Anaar in Hindi can also mean the fruit pomegranate which is said to be a panacea for many ills as in the Hindi idiom - "Ek anar sou bimar - One pomegranate for a hundred ill people"! - which describes a situation in which there is only one remedy available for giving to a hundred ill people and so the problem is who to give it to. Thus this name indicates that anarcho-environmentalism is the only cure for the many diseases of modern development! Similarly kali can also imply a budding anarcho-environmentalist movement. Finally according to a legend that is considered to be apocryphal by historians Anarkali was the lover of Prince Salim who was later to become the Mughal emperor Jehangir. Emperor Akbar did not approve of this romance of his son and ordered Anarkali to be bricked in alive into a wall in Lahore in Pakistan but she escaped. Allegorically this means that anarcho-environmentalists can succeed in bringing about the escape of humankind from the self-destructive love of modern development that it is enamoured of at the moment and they will do this by simultaneously supporting women's struggles for their rights.

Friday, October 24, 2014

Relevance of a Celestial Battle

Today, in north and central India, is the day of Govardhan Pooja to celebrate the victory of Lord Krishna over Lord Indra. The legend goes that Krishna advised human beings to worship Govardhan, one of his manifestations, rather than Indra the Lord of Rain. This angered Indra and he either stopped the rains in some places or rained down heavily in others to completely destroy the crops of the people. Krishna then lifted the Govardhana hill filled with food and brought it to the people to save them from starvation and thus foiled Indra.
How do we interpret this legend? While Indra was only the God of Rain, Krishna was the overall God of Nature. Thus, the early Indians who were worshippers of nature, through this legend seem to indicate that they felt that a holistic view of nature would be more appropriate than a partial one. So the wisdom of the ancient people who initiated this legend and the resultant worship is very relevant today when we have not only fragmented nature considerably more through industrialisation but also devastated it with scant regard for the renewability and resilience of various ecosystems which are the basis of life on this earth.
I grew up in an urban setting in Kolkata and so knew only of Kali Puja and Diwali and had no inkling whatsoever about Govardhan Pooja that is held the next day. I first came to know of this when I came to Alirajpur. In fact the Bhils here celebrate Diwali in a different fashion altogether. For them this festival is a thanksgiving to nature for its bounty in giving them a good harvest. So they do not celebrate it according to the Hindu Diwali calendar. Each village has its own Diwali celebration in December or January after all the harvest has been winnowed and stored away in their houses. The picture below shows women using a saree as an artificial wind creator in the absence of natural wind to winnow red gram.

On the first day there is singing, dancing and feasting and on the second day the bullocks are worshipped and fed the grain that they have helped in harvesting. The food has to be prepared for feasting and for this festival small millets like Bhadi and Batti have to be pounded in pestles and then boiled. The picture below shows women pounding the millets -

The ritual of worshipping the bullocks and feeding them is an elaborate one and here is a picture of a bullock being fed grain after the worship -
Finally all the cattle and goats are let out from the house amidst loud cries and bursting of crackers. This celebration of Diwali by the Bhils or the Govardhan Pooja by non-tribal farmers is so full of meaning and practical considerations of the human bond with nature as compared to the empty festival of lights and crackers that we urbanites celebrate. After all given the huge darkness of money making perfidy that undergirds our lives and livelihoods, a symbolic celebration of light can only be full of hypocrisy!! The message of the Govardhan Pooja or the Bhil Diwali, the real Diwali which is yet to come this year, is clear - we have to become one with nature and pay our respects to its wholeness instead of fragmenting and destroying it as we are doing now, if we are to survive in the future. The celestial battle between Krishna and Indra for an appropriate and holistic relationship with nature has gained in relevance today faced as we are with a huge ecological crisis brought on by the greed for money.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Unto This Last

A man that is a householder, went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard. And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace, And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise. And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and said unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? They said unto him, Because no man has hired us. He said unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive. So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard said unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny. And when they had received it, they murmured against the good man of the house, saying, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day. But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny? Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.
— adapted from  Matthew 20:1–16, New Testament, King James Version
The crucial argument in this parable is that the last of the workers was prepared to work the whole day and it was not his fault that he got an opportunity only at the end and so he too deserved the same wage because he too has a family to feed. Thus, the reward for labour is delinked from the quantity and quality of labour itself and tied to the basic needs of the labourer. This is also the argument in the socialist dictum - "From each according to his ability and to each according to his need", first popularised by Louis Blanc and later taken up by Karl Marx, which too has its roots in another biblical parable - "And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul: neither said any of them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common. And with great power gave the apostles witness of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus: and great grace was upon them all. Neither was there any among them that lacked: for as many as were possessors of lands or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things that were sold, And laid them down at the apostles' feet: and distribution was made unto every man according as he had need" - Acts of the Apostles, 4:32–35: 32
 This parable in fact strikes at the roots of economic inequality - the ownership of private property.
 Then there is the famous verse from the Gita (Chapter 2 verse 47) which says "to work you have the right not to its fruits, don't be the medium for enjoying the fruits of work and neither be lured into not working" which delinks working from the fruits of that work and stresses that humans to exist must work but that the results of that work are not to be sought after. 
Thus, the problem of economic inequality, its roots and the means to be adopted for its solution have been the subject of human discussion from ancient times and it is indeed something of an irony that it should still be so today!!! 
The American philosopher, John Rawls, too proposed something of the same sort when he suggested that the priority social objective of any State should be to maximise the welfare of the worst off person in society and this is what informs most welfare measures of modern states where redistribution of incomes is sought to be done through taxing the rich and subsidising the poor.
John Ruskin, the British philosopher, who quoted the parable from Matthew metioned earlier, in his book "Unto This Last", was a critic of Victorian materialism and industrialism and relied on an evangelical interpretation of Christianity to press for a more humane social system, which would use the surpluses gained from modern development to pull up the people at the bottom of society and create a level playing field for them. As opposed to the classical economists like Ricardo and Malthus, he refused to accept that resources were scarce and instead worked from the proposition that they were abundant but were being disproportionately and inappropriately used and advocated that if need be some of the new industrial and urban development should be jettisoned because it clashed with nature and human weal. Marx had the same views as Ruskin, with regard to the devastation of nature by industrialisation but unlike the latter the former was an out an out votary of modern industrial development as a means of freeing humanity from scarcity and so he down played this aspect expressing the hope that once communism was established, and the rule of capital and its dehumanising alienation of labour abolished, the relationship between man and nature would stabilise. With regard to the exploitation of humans under industrialism Marx felt that the abolition of private property would suffice to remedy this. However, Ruskin and other anarchists have felt that centralised industrial systems cannot ensure equality and justice even if the ownership of property remains in State hands and this has been corroborated by later developments in socialist countries after revolutions. As succinctly put in this quote that is apocryphally attributed to Kafka - 
"Every revolution evaporates and leaves behind only the slime of a new bureaucracy".
Gandhi, initially, was inspired by Ruskin to start his Sarvodaya Programme in South Africa, the principles of which were later elaborated in his book "Hind Swaraj" in which he also harked back to the Vedas and the Gita for more support for his anti-industrial and anarchist socio-economic programme. Gandhi in fact went one step further and said that those who do manual labour should be recompensed more than those who do intellectual labour as he felt that the former was more important socially than the latter.
However, the history of human development shows that private property and greed, which have been so inveighed against by both spiritual and material philosophers, has ruled society and as a result inequality has gone on increasing and is today protected by huge economic and military power against which both non-violent and violent protests have proved unsuccessful. Thus, removing inequality is a difficult proposition currently, especially as the capitalist control of the human mind through the media and academia have made inequality an accepted phenomenon for most people and they have become resigned to living with it. 
So those of us who would like to carry on the glorious ancient tradition that I have quoted extensively from above and reject INEQUALITY, will have to buckle down and fight as best we can against a very powerful and greedy system that thrives on it and has succeeded in conning the rest of the world into believing that concentration of wealth and economic growth are the only way in which we can develop as a race!!  

Friday, October 10, 2014

Inequality of Transportation

Today a huge number of Indians are on the move. Primarily because a considerable number of people are migrating for labour. A conservative estimate based on various government data is that every year 100 million people or about 25% of the workforce are migrating seasonally for labour. Probably it is even more than that. In Alirajpur the proportion is as high as 85% of the workforce. Migration has become a permanent phenomenon of the present form of economic development where agriculture has been severely under funded and industrial development has been predicated on cheap casual labour. To avoid the problems arising from unionisation of local labour employers prefer to employ casual labour brought from other areas by labour contractors. A vast majority of these migrants are poor labourers. Only a miniscule proportion of travellers are high flying executives who are frequent travellers on aeroplanes. Most people travel by train and the Indian Railways issues some 8 billion passenger tickets every year for short to long distance journeys including repeat ones for daily commuters and also less frequent ones for long distance travellers. Understandably, given this huge rush of people travelling all the time the Indian Railways cannot meet the demand. Things have been compounded by the fact that for long distance trains there are many AC and Sleeper Class Compartments which allow travel in relative comfort but on which seats have to be booked well in advance. There are only one or two general compartments in which people can travel without reservation at short notice. Therefore, these compartments are jam packed with some people having to stand and cover long distances of over hundreds of kilometres. Thus, while the well heeled and those with the luxury to pre plan their travel well in advance can travel in comfort, the vast majority have to really struggle to reach their destination. All this of course has happened because the Railways are being pressurised to cut costs and show profits so the general compartments which are loss making have been reduced.
There was a time when conducting mass rallies in far away places used to be a song as all we had to do was climb on to a train en masse and travel free in the four or five general compartments that used to be there. On one occasion we even invaded the reserved compartments. However, this has now become impossible. Not only are there just one or two general compartments which are already jam packed with people but also there are strict security arrangements and so it is practically impossible to invade the reserved compartments. Thus, the pressure on Railways to make profits has also put the brakes on mass mobilisation over long distances to attend rallies in places of power. While the mainstream political parties hire trains to ferry people to their rallies, the mass organisations obviously cannot do so given their shoe string operations and so such rallies have become a thing of the past mostly.
So due to the rush in trains now people have to rely on buses and various other kinds of road transport also which are not only much more expensive but also more accident prone. These modes of road transport too are over crowded as the picture below of a jeep over laden with passengers in Alirajpur shows.
Not surprisingly India has a high road accident fatality rate of 19.9 per 100,000 inhabitants per year which is more than the global average of 18 and 211.8 per 100,000 motor vehicles per year which is significantly more than the global average of 93.3.
Personally, in times of old when we were young and bold when Subhadra and I have slogged it out in unreserved packed compartments but this has become difficult these days and we rarely attempt it anymore. Last year on one occasion I had to do it but for a short distance of about 200 kilometres that involved only about 4 hours of standing travel. Recently Subhadra had to rush to Raipur to visit a relative who had been paralysed by a cerebral stroke. It was the peak Puja holiday season and somehow I managed reserved train tickets for her online but eventually one leg of about two hundred and fifty kilometres from Nagpur to Raipur did not get confirmed. So she had to rush out of the station to the ticket counter and get a general ticket to board the connecting train. As she came on to the platform the train started moving. She began running for the general compartment which was at the back but it was jam packed with men sitting at the entrance who refused to let her in. Luckily there was one Ladies only general compartment after that and she somehow managed to get onto that. No sooner had she got in and sat down next to the toilet because the rest of the compartment was packed with women another woman took out her wares of lac bangles and asked Subhadra to buy them!! Subhadra saw that she had two small children with her so she asked her where her husband was. The bangle seller said that he had not been allowed in to this compartment by the police and so he was in another compartment!!. Subhadra told her that she did not wear these kinds of bangles and instead offered to look after her children so that the bangle seller could go and sell the bangles in the compartment. The bangle seller eventually succeeded in selling Rupees five hundred worth of bangles!! The general compartments are packed with such marginal people trying to make livelihoods out of nothing and desperately travelling from one place to another.
To cut a long story short the inequality that is rampant in society manifests itself in transportation also with most people having to bear tremendous difficulties to travel while a miniscule few travel in luxury.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Inequality in Development

Today 28th September is the twentyfifth anniversary of the first ever mass national public rally and meeting in India against destructive development held in the town of Harsud in Madhya Pradesh in 1989. "Vinash Nahi, Vikas Chahiye" - Development without Destruction was the clarion call that was given in that rally. It holds great memories for me personally. Before this we in Alirajpur, under the banner of the Khedut Mazdoor Chetna Sangath had never ventured out of that district or western Madhya Pradesh for any rally on such a large scale. We had many village meetings and then people decided to take up the cost of going such a long distance in trucks. Eventually ten trucks jam packed with a hundred men and women each covered the distance of three hundred kilometers over night to take part in this historic rally. The rally saw the presence of thousands of toiling people, intellectuals and activists from across India with the most famous being the likes of Baba Amte, Medha Patkar, Shabana Azmi, Kaluram Dhodhre of the Bhoomi Sena and Jnanpith Award winning litterateur  U.R. Anantamurthy. The politicians V.C. Shukla and Maneka Gandhi also came to the meeting and were famously prevented from sitting on the stage due to the objection of Baba Amte that this was a non-party political gathering. Guthia spoke on behalf of the Bhils of Alirajpur and I had the privilege of translating what he said. There was definitely great expectation in the air that a new nationwide mass movement would take off from this show of strength that would seriously challenge the inequality and injustice of centralised development which had only devastated the environment and the livelihoods of the poor without giving them much of the benefits of such development.
Out of this rousing rally evolved the Jan Vikas Andolan in a meeting in Bhopal about two months later which was to be a nationwide movement against destructive development with a strong grassroots base. However, over the years since then neither the Jan Vikas Andolan, which soon became defunct or the National Alliance of People's Movements, which today is the most active and powerful coalition of mass movements in the country, have been able to fulfil promise of the Harsud rally. No doubt struggles have multiplied in number and many laws have since been enacted that have made fighting for a more equitable and sustainable development model much easier than it was at the time, but overall we have not really been able to turn the direction of development away from its destructive core. In fact the struggle against the dams on the river Narmada which had formed the core of the upsurge at the time later became so weak that Harsud town itself was submerged in the reservoir of the Indira Sagar dam in 2004. The struggle against the dams on the Narmada still continues and remains one of the greatest battles against destructive development not only in India but across the world but it has to be admitted that it is a back to the wall fight rather than one that will be able to overturn destructive development.
I have often pondered on this failure on our part. The main problem as I see it is that we have not been able to garner the resources necessary for striking at the roots of destructive development. Not only financial resources but more importantly human resources. In 1989 there were hundreds of young people both from the middle and upper classes and from the oppressed majority who had joined the mass movements at the grassroots level and provided the cadre that is so necessary for running a movement. However, within a few years most of these youths left the movements to pursue mainstream careers and very few were left behind to continue the struggles. Newer cadre did not join in the same way as the earlier youths had done. As the battles escalated various legal, documentation and travel costs increased and it became difficult to sustain the movements on just donations alone. So in many cases, and definitely so in our own case of the Khedut Mazdoor Chetna Sangath, an NGOisation took place. Even though we have kept external institutional funding to a bare minimum it does bring with it restrictions on mass action of various kinds and so those few of us who have remained behind to continue the fight at the grassroots have lost much of our earlier militancy.
Also, the ruling classes have met the challenge of grassroots militancy with deep counter planning. The lollipops of academic tenureship and NGO funding have been effectively dangled before grassroots activists both from the middle classes and the oppressed sections. Moreover, Panchayati Raj which began to be implemented in earnest after the constitutional amendment making it mandatory in 1993, has pushed corrupt party politics into the remotest corners and so it is difficult for mass movements to retain cadres. Finally, the cell phone and digital TV revolution of the twentyfirst century has pushed consumerist culture into the deepest corners of the country and made political education for countering destructive development very difficult. The night meeting and regular leadership and ideological trainings used to be the mainstay of building up a counter culture but these have become very difficult to organise in these days of inane TV programming that is pushed directly into homes.
The memory of the historic Harsud Rally of a quarter of a century ago has consequently dimmed and I would not have remembered it at all if it had not been for a post in Facebook and an email from Aid India. I remember that I had said that day while translating Guthia's speech that September 28th is also the birth anniversary of Shaheed Bhagat Singh and his legacy, which has not really been pursued after independence except for some ceremonial remembrance, has to be actively adopted if destructive development is to be seriously challenged. That remains true even today. How to do it is a conundrum that has to be cracked as otherwise the anniversary of Harsud Day will also be celebrated ceremonially without a strong nationwide movement evolving for more equitable development.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Inequality of Access to Justice

Getting justice in this country is costly. Whether it is initially from the police or later from the courts. That is why poor people are in most cases unable to access it unless there is an organisation supporting them. The Int Bhatta Majdoor Union based in Ahmedabad is one such organisation that has been fighting for the rights of the brick kiln workers in Gujarat in particular and also in the rest of the country for over five years now. Here is a report from them about the gang rape of an Adivasi minor girl brick kiln worker and the extortion from her co workers by their employers and the action that the union has taken to bring the culprits to justice.
Rape and extortion at a brick kiln in Baroda district, Gujarat
Geeta (name changed), a 16 year old tribal girl, is a resident of Limkheda village in Dhanpur taluka of Dahod district of Gujarat. She has three brothers and three sisters. She has studied till class VIII.  For the first time in her life, she went to work in brick kilns at Navik Bricks, a brick kiln in Sankheda block of old Baroda district in the month of February 2014. Her brothers and cousins were already working there. The group had started work in the month of November and had spent almost four months by the time Geeta arrived to join them. Some members would come back to their home village some 150 kms away and then join back after a couple of days’ rest. The group of six persons was recruited to work in the brick kilns by Avani bai, a female labor contractor from a nearby village. The family group was advanced an amount of Rs. 90,000/- against six persons to work in brick kilns. Geeta’s family took Rs. 60,000/- for four workers while her uncle took Rs. 30,000/ for two workers. The group was engaged to transport fired bricks from the kiln for loading in trucks.
Dahod district is part of the tribal belt in Western India that stretches across a number of states. Tribal community is universally recognized as the poorest community in India. Dahod district is the main catchment for cheap wage labor in construction and agriculture sector in plains of Gujarat. The family owns a small amount of land that is not enough to provide sustenance. As local labor is not available, the family members migrate for wage labor work. The normal migration route is for agriculture work in Saurashtra, a far off region of Gujarat, an overnight journey away. This was the first time when the group went to work in brick kilns.
In February, Avani bai put pressure on the family to send one more workers for work as the advance was against six workers, but only five were working. So Geeta also went to the kiln as there was no other person left at home. After she started work, she was stared at and followed by three young men whom she did not know by name. One of the group members would repeatedly smile at her. Six days after she had arrived, when Geeta was loading bricks in the truck, this person climbed on the truck to receive bricks from Geeta. He pressed her hand. Geeta then moved away. That night Geeta was sleeping outside her hut with a group of young girls. Late in the night the three young men covered her mouth with a cloth and lifted her to nearby fields. They took her to a nearby hut where she was raped by the young man targeting her while the other two kept guard. By this time, the other girls realized that Geeta was missing. They raised an alarm. The workers gathered and rescued Geeta from the hut. One of the group members pursuing Geeta was the son of the owner of the kiln while another one was supervisor at the kiln.
After the incident the group decided that they will not work anymore at the brick kiln. The labor contractor and the kiln owner did not agree to let the group go back. They instead said that the family should reach a settlement about the incident, but continue working. The settlement offer was to marry the rapist and get some money. The workers did not agree to this. They informed their family members back at home who sent a vehicle to pick up the family. The vehicle arrived at the brick kiln two days after the incident. The female members of the group sat in the vehicle to go back. At this point the brick kiln owner collected a group that attacked the workers. They beat up the jeep driver badly who ran away. The kiln owner removed the tires of the jeep and kept it in his compound. The female workers were asked to go back to their huts. They were asked to pay back a sum of Rs. 1.5 lakhs (Rs. 150,000/-) if they wanted to go back.
It took the family members a week to collect this amount. A group came from the workers’ village along with the village headman to pay the ransom money and bring the group back. Even this did not happen easily. The workers report that the owner collected a group to kidnap Geeta but somehow they were able to sit in their jeep and go back to the village.
After the group reached the village, Geeta’s father approached the village headman to help in filing a police case. The headman approached the head constable who was on the local beat. Rs. five thousand was paid. A food and drink party was organized. However nothing came of it.
Dhanpur block is a major source area of brick kiln workers for brick kilns in Central Gujarat. Ahmedabad based Int Bhatta Majdoor Union has been active in this area. It has helped workers get their back wages in a number of cases. Bharat bhai is the Union cadre from this area. Almost six months after the incident, he came to know about the incident. He immediately contacted the Union. The whole group came to the Ahmedabad office on 18th September. After a debriefing session, the Union team went to the Sankheda police station on 20th September to file a report. Geeta’s brothers who had migrated were called back to give evidence. A police report has been filed under sections 370 A, 376, 342, 323,114 and POCSO Act section 3,4. For the first time, Section 370 of IPC that deals with human trafficking has been invoked after much argument with the police. 
The case is remarkable for its extreme brutality, but is in many ways symptomatic of the vulnerabilities faced by the brick kiln workers across the state and the country. It shows almost complete absence of regulation of any kind at the brick kilns. The system of advances leading to debt bondage, non-payment of wages, extortion if the workers want to leave early, violence including sexual violence – all these features are common to brick kilns all over the country to some extent. The incident has taken place in a state that has been touted as the model for the whole country. The brick kiln falls in old Baroda district, the constituency of the current Indian Prime Minister till he resigned his seat to keep the other seat won by him. The case illustrates that the law and order machinery of the state is outside the bounds of the poor unless mediated by civil society groups of which there are not many. The Prayas Centre for Labour Research and Action is one such group that has been actively working for the informal workers and is providing support to the Int Bhatta Majdoor Union in this case.


Saturday, September 13, 2014

Inequality of Access to Capital

The other day I got an email from a friend working in one of the financial institutions in Wall Street in New York in the United States asking me whether the coming to power of the Bharatiya Janata Party at the centre under the leadership of Narendra Modi would ensure an IRR of 20% in the infrastructure sector in India. The IRR is the internal rate of return, also called the economic rate of return which is the rate at which, when discounted to the present, all the projected net cash flows from a project during its life cycle equal the initial investment. Only if the IRR is significantly more than the going interest rate on borrowed capital does it become profitable for any company to undertake a project and the financial institutions lending to it also are assured of repayment of the loans with interest that they have advanced to the company. Given that the interest rate charged by banks for loans to projects currently in India is around 13% due to the Reserve Bank's policy of high interest rates to curtail the stubbornly high inflation rate, it is not unreasonable for financial institutions to demand an IRR of 20% from a project to fund it. Unfortunately for the capitalists, IRR in the infrastructure sector in India has been well below 10% in recent years mainly due to two factors - the high cost of land because it is difficult to evict people forcibly from land these days and the high cost of raw materials and energy due to environmental laws and increasing scarcity of non-renewable natural resources. Thus, what the friend in Wall Street was basically asking was whether Narendra Modi would be able to reduce the costs of land and raw materials to such an extent that the IRR of infrastructure projects could go up to 20% from the current 10% or less (there are many projects which have not been able to go on stream because of high raw material and energy costs after the plants having been commissioned and so are reeling under huge debt and interest burdens, especially in the power sector) and make them viable to fund.
The crucial thing here is that the IRR is concerned only with the economic costs of a project. Since the economic costs have to be minimised if IRR has to be high so there is a tendency to reduce the social and environmental costs either by undervaluing them or externalising them altogether. This has been the motto of all development right from the time agriculture was developed in the neolithic era some ten thousand years ago. However, this process of externalisation of social and environmental costs increased many times once industrial development started and it continues apace spurred on by the thrust of financial institutions to earn super profits on the money that they loan out to various companies. But the world over the financial institutions are faced with serious obstacles because social and environmental costs cannot be externalised so easily anymore as people have become more resistant to forcible displacement and the environment also is hitting back in many ways against its devastation through floods, droughts, a non renewable natural resource crunch, global warming and the like. In India, in recent times, land acquisition has become particularly problematical because of a long history of displacement without adequate compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement of people which has created a trust deficit for the Government and the Corporations among the people. So much so that over the past decade there have been some fierce battles both on the ground and in the courts waged by the people affected by such unjust displacement of whom tribals are in a large majority because most of the resource rich areas, where infrastructure projects like mines, dams and power plants have to be constructed, happen to be forested habitats of the tribals. As a consequence of these struggles India now has a new Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (LARRA) to replace the colonial Land Acquisition Act of 1894, a Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forestdwellers (Recognition of Rights) Act (FRA), the Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas Act (PESAA) and the National Green Tribunal Act (NGTA), which together make it very very difficult for the Government and the Corporations to acquire land and devastate the environment. One of the most important victories in recent years is that of the Dongria Kondhs shown below who were able to prevent Vedanta Resources, one of the biggest mining and metals conglomerates in the world, from displacing them from the Niyamgiri Hills in Orissa to extract the bauxite that is there underneath them.

Both displacement and devastation of the environment had become costly in the developed countries much earlier due to higher levels of awareness and so social and environmental costs had to be internalised in the IRR calculations pushing down the rate of profit. The corporations there aided by their governments and international institutions like the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank began outsourcing their manufacturing and services into the developing countries. However, now even in India things have become difficult and increasingly social and environmental costs are having to be internalised and that is why my friend in Wall Street was asking whether Narendra Modi would be able to improve matters for them by halting and reversing this IRR reducing trend in India because he had been able to do precisely that in the state of Gujarat while he was Chief Minister there for three decades by trampling on the rights of the people and devastating the environment.
It is not surprsing, therefore, that Narendra Modi has, immediately after coming to power at the centre, given a clarion call to global investors to come and "make" in India and has initiated measures to dilute the strict conditions of the LARRA, FRA and NGTA so as to ensure that IRR can be hiked up once again. One can see this as a battle between capital concentrated in the hands of a few on the one hand and society and the environment on which the majority depend for their livelihoods on the other. The majority do not have access to capital and are somehow clinging on to what little they have to eke out a living. Those in control of capital, however, are concerned only with getting returns on it even if it is at the cost of devastating society and the environment. Since this creates a situation of conflict, a major part of the accumulated capital is spent on maintaining armed forces and the police and fighting wars or suppressing revolts. To provide legitimacy to this grossly illegitimate use of power, capital also controls the media and academia so as to keep the masses and intellectuals steeped in inanities rather than become conscious fighters against this injustice. Unless this huge inequality in access to capital is removed and Wall Street not only occupied but demolished, there is no way in which justice can be ensured. 

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

Gender Inequality

The most egregious of all inequalities is that between men and women. Feminist sociologists have pinpointed the dominance of men in society as the prime reason for this and termed this phenomenon as patriarchy. Analysing all the main institutions of society like the family, marriage, kinship groups, media, religious hierarchies, business entities and the organs of the state, they have shown that all these play a role in maintaining the overall patriarchal structure of society. Over thousands of years this structure has become so well entrenched that to most people including women it seems quite natural instead of being the social construct that it is.
As a result traditionally most women in India have had to work more, they have been denied the right to inheritance of property, they have had to assume total responsibility for house work and the care of children and the elderly and this work is not counted as of being of any economic value, they have had to go underfed and have been subjected to domestic and external violence of the worst kind. As a consequence of this secondary status, women have to bear more babies to ensure that there are male progeny who will inherit the property of their husbands and provide security in old age. This is in fact the prime reason why we are a country of a billion plus population presently because no woman given a choice would bear and rear so many children. Along with this there is social control over the sexuality of women so that men can be assured that the children born to their wives are truly theirs and so ensure the purity of their descent. Naturally all this affects the overall physical and mental health of women adversely and especially their reproductive and sexual health. Since there is a taboo on the discussion of these issues women have to suffer their troubles in silence and this leads to mental problems. Thus, there is a deafening culture of silence surrounding women's reproductive and sexual health problems. The biggest irony is that the menstrual cycle which is an integral part of the reproductive process is considered in the prevailing patriarchal system to be the cause of various  negative things and has been given a dirty connotation in India. This affects the ability of women to maintain personal hygiene and results in their being afflicted by various diseases of the reproductive tract. A very sorry state of affairs that does not speak very well of our country in general and the men in particular.
The central problem, with regard to the health of women, is that they are seen as child bearing and rearing machines and the State in India is also mainly concerned with ensuring that they do bear and rear children safely rather than with enabling them to develop as independent individuals who can participate freely in their own and society's development. This despite the fact that as early as in 1975, India signed the declaration of the first World Women's Conference held in Mexico which inter alia had this to recommend to all Governments - "recognise the health needs of women of all ages and situations, those with children, girls who were yet to reach child bearing age and women who had passed the child bearing age range and also those living singly or as couples, give women the right to choose the number of children they wish to have and also the spacing between them and prevent any such discrimination and violence that is against the welfare of women, that prevents them from taking active part in the social, economic and political development of their societies and that violates their human rights". Subsequently the Government of India has also signed the Convention to Eliminate all forms of Discrimination Against Women which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1980. The dismal situation of women, arising mainly from their patriarchal oppression, can be understood from the following data culled from the National Family Health Survey III conducted in 2005-06 -
Selected Reproductive Health Characteristics of Indian Women
Characteristic
Female
Male
Adults with below normal Body Mass Index (%) 
33.0
28.0
Adults with anaemia (%)
56.2
24.3
Mothers with complete Ante-Natal Care (%)
50.7

Mothers with complete Post-Natal Care (%)
36.4

Institutional Deliveries (%)
40.7

Women 20-24 yrs married before 18 years of age (%)
44.5

Women15-19 yrs who were pregnant/had child (%)
16.0

Women who have suffered Domestic Violence (%)
37.2

Total Fertility Rate (%)
2.7

Source: National Family Health Survey III conducted by International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai, 2007. 
 A comparative study of the data from the first, second and third National Family Health Surveys has come up with an extremely disturbing finding ( Shrinivasan, K, Chandra Shekhar & Arokiaswamy, P (2007). Reviewing Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India. EPW Vol 42 No 27 & 28).
Even though the spending on family planning by the Government of India after the initiation of the new reproductive health approach in 1996 in the years 1998 -2004 has been double that in the earlier period from 1992 - 1998, the improvement rate in the case of many characteristics given in the table above has been less during the later period. This means that the Government is not following the correct approach towards solving the problems being faced by women. 
The correct approach that has been established through feminist practice the world over in the last few decades is that of Reproductive Health and Rights which "enables women and men, including adolescents, everywhere to regulate their own fertility safely and effectively by conceiving when they desire, terminating unwanted pregnancies and carrying wanted pregnancies to term; to remain free of disease, disability or death associated with reproduction or sexuality and to bear and raise healthy children." (Germain, A & Ordway, J (1989). Population Control and Women's Health : Balancing the Scales, IWHC, New York.).  Specifically, this approach entails the following (Correa, S & Petchesky, R (1994). Reproductive and Sexual Rights: A Feminist Perspective in Sen, G & Germain, A & Chen, L ed Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment and Rights. Harvard University Press.) -
1.    Bodily Integrity - All women have the right to protect their bodies and have control over them. Women can't be deprived of their sexual and productive abilities by men or the state and they can't be made to use these abilities according to the latter's whims and fancies.
2.    Personhood - Women will take their own decisions regarding reproduction and sexual behaviour and nobody can interfere in this.
3.    Equality - Women are equal to men in all respects and so the gender division of labour under which women have been given the work of exclusively tending the children and the elderly and also doing housework has to be abolished and men should also take up these responsibilities. Apart from this women's health issues should be better addressed on par with those of men.
4.    Diversity - The differences arising from difference in values, culture, religion, class, nationality and the like should be respected.

Except for a few NGOs across the country nobody else and least of all the Government is following this approach and so women continue to be in the doldrums.

Monday, August 25, 2014

Unequal Access to Food

One of the biggest problems facing India is that of hunger. The proportion of the population in 2010 that was suffering from under nutrition or hunger as defined by the calorie norms adopted in 1974 (2400 kcal per capita per day in rural areas and 2100 in urban areas), was an alarming 90 per cent in rural areas and 70 per cent in urban areas. Chronic hunger, especially that of mothers and children leads to stunting and wasting which severely limit the physical and mental capacities of the population. There is thus, tremendous inequality with regard to access to food in this country arising from chronic food insecurity for a majority of the people wherein a situation exists in which people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life. It is caused by the unavailability of food, insufficient purchasing power, inappropriate distribution or inadequate use of food at the household level. Food insecurity is compounded by poor conditions of health and sanitation and inappropriate care and feeding practices as the other major causes of poor nutritional status.Women in India are more severely affected by undernutrition and the reasons are multifarious and complex. They have to bear children, often in large numbers, in addition to the usual physical activity done by men. In fact in most households women have to do more physical activity than men as they have to undertake the care functions also in addition to income earning activities and are constrained by various retrograde patriarchal social norms and customs. This then affects the health of their children in the womb and immediately after birth.
Food insecurity is correlated with income poverty arising from a lack of well paid livelihood sources. This is primarily because agriculture in India is in severe crisis. Especially problematical is the fact that the production of pulses has gone down drastically to be replaced by soyabean which does not provide direct nutrition to the farmers unlike the former. While 70 percent of the population of the country resides in rural areas, the contribution of agriculture to the GDP is only 14 percent. In fact, there has been a steady decline in this proportion from 1990 when it was 34 percent while the proportion of rural population then was 74 percent. This has mainly been due to the fact that the share of public investments in agriculture, which are in large infrastructure support like the building of dams and canals, has gone down from 5 percent in 1980-81 to 1.2 percent in  2009-10 remaining stagnant at around Rs 10,000 crores annually at 1999-00 prices.
The investments that have taken place in agriculture have not yielded the desired results because of the problems arising out of the mismanagement of dam irrigation on the one hand and the consequent over dependence on ground water for irrigation purposes on the other. The biggest problem is that the canal networks in most cases are not completed or even if they are they are not lined properly and so there is either much less water available for irrigation or much heavier losses through seepage than were designed at the time of construction. There has been a tendency among water resource managers to just build the walls of the dams and not pay enough attention to building and maintaining the canal network. An assessment shows that in the fifteen year period from 19921 to 2007 there was no net addition to the canal irrigated area despite an expenditure of Rs 142000 crores on major and medium irrigation projects in this period.There is, thus, a serious over exploitation of groundwater resources as detailed by the Central Groundwater Board. This increasing dependence on ground water has resulted in an increasing inequity in water usage among the rich and the poor arising from the creation of water markets.
Moreover, this has happened at a time when the ecological sustainability of modern chemical agriculture has come into question and been further compounded by increasing economic costs. This has led to a situation where many farmers have had to give up farming or commit suicide. In fact the suicides by indebted farmers have been rising continually and the Central Government had to initiate a massive debt moratorium scheme in 2008 of Rs 72000 crores.The net result of this crisis in agriculture is that there is massive rural-urban migration estimated to be about a 100 million people annually as people move to cities and towns in search of employment. This, in turn,has fed an increasing trend of “contractualisation” of labour in industries and services with even established organised sector manufacturing firms relying more and more on contract labour as mechanisation reduces the requirement of the number of permanent skilled workers. The contract workers are paid very low wages and they have to live in highly unsanitary conditions in slums leading to a calorie consumption puzzle as they have to spend more on other social services like health and education than earlier and so cut down on their food expenses. This leads to social and industrial unrest. Matters have been compounded by the fact that since January 2008 the consumer price inflation rate began increasing from a relatively mild 5.8% and reached a peak of 16.1% in February 2010 and is still uncomfortably high at 6% mainly due to food inflation and rising prices of crude oil. This forced the Central Government to adopt a tight monetary policy and increase interest rates continually, which has led to investments and industrial output going down, affecting the GDP growth rate which has now come down to 5% from a high of 9.6% in 2010 after it recovered from the effects of the financial meltdown. Thus, overall the livelihoods of the majority are in jeopardy and both, incomes and food intake are low with 75 percent of the rural population in 2010 living on Rs 45 or less per day (equivalent in real terms to 1.25 US $ in 2000 prices at purchasing power parity conversion rates which is the World Bank's extreme poverty line and the proportion for the same in urban areas being 48 percent.
This is the context in which we have to assess the inadequacy of the Government's economic support measures for the poor. The outlay for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, which has undoubtedly provided major economic support for the rural poor has gone down over the years. The other major support is the distribution of subsidised foodgrains through the Public Distribution System (PDS). However, the amount of support provided is inadequate and the system is riddled with corruption. Even though with the passage of the Food Security Act the coverage of the Public Distribution System will increase, the support to be given will be much less than what is required in the prevailing situation of low income and low food intake for a vast majority of the people. The huge crowds that line up before the PDS outlets to get the subsidised food and kerosene, as shown in the picture below, are testimony to the fact that hunger is a stark reality in India.
 One of the biggest challenges for the Khedut Mazdoor Chetna Sangath these days is to get the PDS functional. Ever since the new Food Security Act has been enacted there is a huge confusion within the system as it is being digitised. Consequently many Adivasis in the remoter villages have gone without rations for months together. As usual the staff have taken advantage of this situation to try and earn even more from corruption thant they usually do. On several occasions truckloads of people have come to our office in Alirajpur and then gone in procession to the Collectorate to sort things out. Without adequate food we will definitely not be able to leverage our demographic dividend with a hungry population.

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Toilets and Inequality

The only concrete programme to be enunciated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, in his more than an hour long extempore speech on the occasion of the Independence Day, on August 15th, which was otherwise peppered with homilies, platitudes and promises, was that of building toilets in each and every school in this country within four years. He exhorted the Corporates to contribute to this effort and make it possible as the Government on its own would not be able to achieve this. Given the fact that the lack of toilets in schools is a major reason for girls dropping out of education after reaching puberty, this is indeed a very laudable programme for ensuring gender equality apart from its contribution to sanitation.
However, it is not enough to just build toilets. The public toilets that are there in this country are mostly in a very bad shape. Primarily because they are not taken care of. The entrenched caste system, over thousands of years, has drilled it into our heads that it is the business of the Dalits to clean toilets whether private or public. Since the Dalits have revolted against this and only a few now remain who are prepared to take up this vocation because they have no other alternative, there is a serious shortage of people to clean public toilets. Therefore, most public toilets in this country stink to high heaven and are also often packed with faeces. So even if all the schools in this country have toilets, the problem of cleaning those toilets will remain a serious one. Considering that Gandhi had first tried to solve this problem by shifting the burden of cleaning toilets away from the Dalits and making it the responsibility of all, more than a century ago and yet it still remains a problem, it is clear that the main obstacle is social rather than technical or financial. Our country now has enough resources and the technical ability to mechanise toilet or sewer cleaning but since there is this mentality that one particular caste should do the work and their labour is available cheaply, so they are still forced to do the work as shown in the picture below and since the number of people from among their community who are prepare to do this degrading work is dwindling, the net result is that toilets, sewers, rivers and ponds have all become full of faeces and urine. Only in some crowded places where it is viable to run public toilets by charging people are these in a relatively better shape but this is not going to be the case in schools where the children do not have money to buy copies and pencils let alone pay for using toilets.
Consequently, girls' inequality with regard to receiving education after they reach puberty is tied up with the inequality suffered by Dalits who are forced to clean toilets and sewers as nobody else is prepared to do so as the upper castes are not only not prepared to clean toilets but are also not ready to expend public resources in mechanising the cleaning of toilets.
A public toilet to run properly needs a considerable amount of water and also a system to dispose the waste water. The best solution therefore is to have a decentralised treatment and recycling system wherein after an initial supply of water, the waste water is treated and recycled continuously for flushing and some of it is treated to the level where it can be used for washing also.The teachers in the school have to take the lead in running this system once it is installed with the help of all the students, regardless of their caste, instead of looking for a Dalit to clean the toilets and failing to find one, letting them stink to high heaven and eventually become unusable or keeping them locked up unused as shown in the picture below of a toilet in a primary school in a village in Alirajpur district which incidentally does not have a roof!!

I doubt whether Prime Minister Modi, who also spoke of himself being a Prime Servant, has thought all this out before announcing grandiosely from the ramparts of the Red Fort that as a Prime Servant he was proud to talk of toilets on Independence day for the first time in the nation's glorious history.  Many greater men have found their programmes for a sanitised India biting the dust before him and Modi's too will meet the same fate, unless he can ensure that toilet cleaning becomes the primary aim of each and every one of us in this country and does not remain as an albatross around the necks of the Dalits only.

Friday, August 15, 2014

Inequality

Every year I participate in Blog Action Day which is held on October 16th in which bloggers have to write a post on a chosen theme. The theme this year is inequality. Over the years the popularity of this event has waned and last year there were only 6000 odd blogs that registered and posted. Nevertheless, I have been a regular in this since its inception. Once I register for Blog Action Day as I have done today, all the posts I write are on the theme selected for the year till the final post on the appointed day itself. Today also happens to be the Indian Independence Day and so it would be fitting to discuss the topic of inequality with special reference to the current status of the Bhil Adivasis of Alirajpur as citizens of this country.
There was a news day before yesterday that there are seventy dollar billionaires in India with a combined wealth of about 180 billion dollars and among them the top five control about 85 billion dollars. At the same time an analysis of the large sample consumer expenditure survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation in 2010 reveals that the proportion of households unable to purchase enough food and other necessities like clothing, shelter and education for healthy living is as high as 75 per cent.  That means that not only are there high levels inequality between the super rich and the poor but that even within the super rich there is a high concentration of wealth. This huge rise in inequality coincides with the high growth rates of the economy achieved since the mid 1980s. Thus, it is evident that the growth that has taken place over the past three decades has been highly unequal.
The Khedut Mazdoor Chetna Sangath began organising the Bhils from the early 1980s and the process picked up strength from about the mid 1980s and so the work of the KMCS has paralleled the high growth phase of the Indian economy. The rights mobilisation by the KMCS has enabled the Bhils to cash in on some of the growth by demanding and getting some of the resources being spent by the State and also being able to get better prices for their agricultural produce and their labour. However, since overall the policies of the State are skewed towards the super rich and the riches flowing to them are also further enhanced by high level corruption, even after doing better than they had earlier, the majority of Bhils remain firmly placed at the bottom of Indian society labouring their guts out as migrant workers in construction sites.

But what is of the highest concern is that the development process over the past three decades or so has deeply stratified a society that was fairly egalitarian before. There are now dollar millionaires among the Bhils who have acquired their wealth through cornering political power and monopolising activities like mining, bootlegging, land sharking, gun running and the like. In the same way as the Dollar billionaires, and especially the top ones among them, are respected and adulated by the mainstream society for having amassed their wealth, regardless of the means they have used to do so, so also the Dollar millionaires among the Bhils are respected by the common Bhils and the aspirations of the youth have now become to acquire wealth by hook or by crook and the traditional communitarian cooperation is being increasingly jettisoned.
The worst sufferers of these changes are the women. Anyway, Bhil society is patriarchal and has a custom of bride price in which the groom's family has to pay the bride's family a certain amount when marriages are solemnised and women are generally treated as objects rather than as persons and subjected to patriarchal oppression. Now with consumerism and monetarism the bride prices have shot through the roof further objectifying and commodifying Bhil women and increasing their oppression. Gender based violence has increased and rapes which were few and far between earlier are increasing. Witch hunting, is also on the increase. This is a retrograde practice wherein women are arbitrarily accused of using black magic to cause harm to the health or economy of a household. Earlier, such practices and disputes would be kept under control by the tradtional Panchayat system but with the monetisation of the society and large inflow of funds, the traditional Panchayat system has been sidelined and now the elected Panchayat system has become more powerful. The aggressive marketing of the idea that concentration of wealth in the hands of those who create wealth, that is the entrepreneurs, is good for the economy and society has gripped the imagination of the poorest of the poor among the Bhils also. Consequently along with wealth creation most of it is getting concentrated in the hands of the crooks who have manipulated governments and society at large to their benefit and the majority are living wretched lives and the environment is degrading at an alarming rate. We need to become independent from this myth of wealth creation which is actually producing illth of all kinds!!!